Construction – the creation (construction) of buildings and structures.
The term “Construction” is defined in the town planning Code of Russia, article 1, paragraph 13
In a broad sense (industry) the construction will also include the overhaul and repair of buildings and structures, their reconstruction, restoration and renovation.
The construction process includes all institutional, survey, design, construction, installation and commissioning works associated with the creation, alteration or demolition of the facility, as well as cooperation with the competent authorities concerning the production of such works.
The result of construction is considered to be erected a building (the building) with interior decoration, current engineering and technological systems and complete set of documentation stipulated by law.
Technical regulation and standardization in construction
The main law regulating relations arising from the development, adoption, application and execution of mandatory and voluntary requirements for products or related processes as well as conformity assessment, is the Federal law of 27 December 2002 №184-FZ “On technical regulation”.
Main technical regulations in the field of construction:
- Federal law of 30.12.2009 № 384-FZ “Technical regulations on safety of buildings and constructions”;
- The Federal law from 22.07.2008 № 123-FZ “Technical regulations on fire safety requirements”;
- Technical regulations of the Customs Union TR CU 011/2011 Safety of lifts
Federal law of 30.12.2009 № 384-FZ “Technical regulations on safety of buildings and structures”
From 1 July 2010 entered into force the Federal law dated 30 December 2009 No. 384-FZ “Technical regulations on safety of buildings and constructions”. This law is the base for the whole system of technical regulation of construction. In addition, given the significant differences between buildings and structures from other objects of technical regulation to the Federal law “On technical regulation” was amended to include article 5.1, which establishes that “the peculiarities of technical regulation in the field of ensuring safety of buildings and structures established by the Federal law “Technical regulations about safety of buildings and constructions”.
The Federal law from 22.07.2008 № 123-FZ “Technical regulations on fire safety requirements”
This Federal law was adopted to protect the life, health, property of citizens and legal persons, state and municipal property from fires, determines basic provisions of technical regulation in the field of fire safety and establishes General requirements of fire safety to the objects of protection (products), including buildings and structures, industrial facilities, fire-technical products and products of General purpose.
Technical regulations of the Customs Union TR CU 011/2011 Safety of lifts
By order of the Government of the Russian Federation of 15 June 2010 No. 998-R approved a List of documents in the field of standardization, containing rules and methods of researches (tests) and measurements, including the rules of sampling necessary for application and execution of technical regulations about safety of lifts and compliance assessment.
From the point of view of the law, normative and technical acts (of national standards and regulations) should be applied to ensure that the construction conformed to the technical regulations.
Part of the national standards and recognized codes of practice binding on their lists of approved:
- the decree of the RF Government from 21.06.2010 № 1047-p (loses force from 01.07.2015);
decree of the RF Government dated 26.12.2014 N 1521 (comes into force on 01.07.2015).
The rest (including building codes) are used on a voluntary basis. The Executive authorities develop and approve lists of regulations recommended for use to comply with the requirements of technical regulations, for example:
- The list of documents in the field of standardization, the result of which, on a voluntary basis, compliance with Federal law of 30.12.2009 № 384-FZ “Technical regulations on safety of buildings and constructions”;
- A list of national standards and codes, the result of which, on a voluntary basis, compliance with Federal law of 22.07.2008 N 123-FZ “Technical regulations on fire safety requirements”;
- The list of national standards and (or) codes of rules, the result of which, on a voluntary basis, compliance with technical regulations “On safety of lifts” approved by Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation of 2 October 2009 No. 782.